Class of Worker. Class of worker categorizes people according to the type of ownership of the employing organization. These categories are: 1) An employee of a private, for-profit company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions; 2) An employee of a private, not-for-profit, tax-exempt, or charitable organization; 3) A Local government employee (city, county, etc); 4) A state government employee; 5) A Federal government employee; 6) Self-employed in own not incorporated business, professional practice, or farm; 7) Self-employed in own incorporated business, professional practice, or farm; 8) Working without pay in a family business or farm. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Conventional Loan Application. Indicates that the loan granted, applied for, or purchased was conventional, not government-guaranteed or government-insured. (2012 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act).
Educational attainment. Educational attainment data are tabulated for people 18 years old and over. Respondents are classified according to the highest degree or the highest level of school completed. The question included instructions for persons currently enrolled in school to report the level of the previous grade attended or the highest degree received. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Employed Persons. Persons 16 years and over in the civilian noninstitutional population who, during the reference week, (a) did any work at all (at least 1 hour) as paid employees; worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in an enterprise operated by a member of the family; and (b) all those who were not working but who had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent because of vacation, illness, bad weather, childcare problems, maternity or paternity leave, labor-management dispute, job training, or other family or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs. Each employed person is counted only once, even if he or she holds more than one job. Excluded are persons whose only activity consisted of work around their own house (painting, repairing, or own home housework) or volunteer work for religious, charitable, and other organizations (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Family Household (Family). A family includes a householder and one or more people living in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. All people in a household who are related to the householder are regarded as members of his or her family. A family household may contain people not related to the householder, but those people are not included as part of the householder's family in census tabulations. Thus, the number of family households is equal to the number of families, but family households may include more members than do families. A household can contain only one family for purposes of census tabulations. Not all households contain families since a household may be comprised of a group of unrelated people or one person living alone—these are called nonfamily households. Same-sex unmarried partner households are included in the family households category only if there is at least one additional person related to the householder by birth or adoption. (2010 Census of Population and Housing).
Grandparents as Caregivers. The ACS collects data on whether a grandchild lives with a grandparent in the household, whether the grandparent has responsibility for the basic needs of the grandchild, and the duration of that responsibility. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Gross Rent. Gross rent is the contract rent plus the estimated average monthly cost of utilities and fuels if these are paid by the renter (or paid for the renter by someone else). Gross rent is intended to eliminate differentials that result from varying practices with respect to the inclusion of utilities and fuels as part of the rental payment. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Higher-priced mortgage loans. A higher-priced mortgage loan (high cost loan) is a consumer credit transaction secured by the consumer's principal dwelling with an annual percentage rate that exceeds the average prime offer rate for a comparable transaction as of the date the interest rate is set by 1.5 or more percentage points for loans secured by a first lien on a dwelling, or by 3.5 or more percentage points for loans secured by a subordinate lien on a dwelling. (2012 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act /Section 226.35(a) of Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)).
Home Improvement Loan. A home improvement loan is (a) any dwelling-secured loan to be used, at least in part, for repairing, rehabilitating, remodeling, or improving a dwelling or the real property on which the dwelling is located, and (b) any non-dwelling-secured loan (i) that is to be used, at least in part, for one or more of those purposes and (ii) that is classified as a home improvement loan by the institution. (2012 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act).
Home Purchase Loan. A home purchase loan is any loan secured by and made for the purpose of purchasing a dwelling. (2012 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act).
Home Refinance Loan. Refinancing is any dwelling-secured loan that replaces and satisfies another dwelling-secured loan to the same borrower. The purpose of the loan being refinanced is not relevant to determining whether the new loan is a refinancing for HMDA purposes. Nor is the borrower's intended use of any additional cash borrowed relevant to determining whether the loan is a refinancing, though the borrower's intended use of the funds could make the transaction a home improvement loan or a home purchase loan. (2012 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act).
House Heating Fuel. The data show the type of fuel used most to heat the house, apartment, or mobile home. House heating fuel provides information on energy supply and consumption. Heating fuel is categorized on the ACS questionnaire as follows: utility gas; bottled, tank or LP gas; electricity; fuel oil, Kerosene, etc; coal or coke; wood; solar energy; other fuel; no fuel used. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Household. All people who occupy a housing unit, including the householder, occupants related to the householder, and lodgers, roomers, boarders, and so forth. (2008-2012 American Community Survey/2010 Census of Population and Housing).
Housing Cost Burden. Housing cost burden is generally a measure of housing costs as a percentage of income. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has defined moderate cost burdens as those between 30 percent and 50 percent of income, and severe cost burdens as those above 50 percent of income. Percent of income paid for housing is, at best, a rough measure of affordability, but its use has become widespread for several reasons. First, it is relatively simple to grasp and to calculate. Second, 30 percent of income has become the standard that housing subsidy programs require households to pay when living in subsidized housing. In this report, housing cost burden is defined as households that pay 30 percent or more of their monthly income towards housing costs.
Data for monthly housing costs as a percentage of household income are developed from a distribution of "Selected Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income" for owner-occupied and "Gross Rent as a Percentage of Household Income" for renter-occupied units. The owner-occupied categories are further separated into those with a mortgage and those without a mortgage. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Housing Unit. A housing unit may be a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms or a single room that is occupied (or, if vacant, intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live separately from any other individuals in the building and which have direct access from outside the building or through a common hall. For vacant units, the criteria of separateness and direct access are applied to the intended occupants whenever possible. If that information cannot be obtained, the criteria are applied to the previous occupants. Both occupied and vacant housing units are included in the housing unit inventory. (2008-2012 American Community Survey/2010 Census of Population and Housing).
Husband-Wife Family. A family in which the householder and his or her spouse of the opposite sex are enumerated as members of the same household. (2010 Census of Population and Housing).
Inadequate Housing Unit. Inadequate housing units are defined as owner- and renter-occupied housing units as having at least one of the following conditions: 1) lacking complete plumbing facilities, 2) lacking complete kitchen facilities, 3) with 1.01 or more occupants per room, 4) selected monthly owner costs as a percentage of household income greater than 30 percent, and 5) gross rent as a percentage of household income greater than 30 percent.
Assessing "substandard" or inadequate housing has long been a challenge for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. Housing quality and adequacy measures are relatively sparse in the American Community Survey (ACS). Generally, the ACS limits housing quality indicators to the prevalence of working plumbing and kitchens, household crowding, and housing affordability. In addition to basic nature of these indicators, these housing quality variables are disparate and scattered across the data. The Rural Data Portal presents the ACS's "selected housing conditions variable" to serve a composite measure of inadequate housing. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Industry. Industry data describe the kind of business conducted by a person's employing organization. These questions were asked for all people 15 years old and over who had worked in the past 5 years. For employed people, the data refer to the person's job during the previous week. For those who worked two or more jobs, the data refer to the job where the person worked the greatest number of hours. For unemployed people and people who are not currently employed but report having a job within the last five years, the data refer to their last job. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Income. "Total income" is the sum of the amounts reported separately for wage or salary income; net self-employment income; interest, dividends, or net rental or royalty income or income from estates and trusts; Social Security or railroad retirement income; Supplemental Security Income (SSI); public assistance or welfare payments; retirement, survivor, or disability pensions; and all other income. Income is only calculated for persons age 15 and over. Receipts from the following sources are not included as income: capital gains, money received from the sale of property (unless the recipient was engaged in the business of selling such property); the value of income "in kind" from food stamps, public housing subsidies, medical care, employer contributions for individuals, etc.; withdrawal of bank deposits; money borrowed; tax refunds; exchange of money between relatives living in the same household; gifts and lump-sum inheritances, insurance payments, and other types of lump-sum receipts. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Income of Households. Household income includes the income of the householder and all other individuals 15 years old and over in the household, whether they are related to the householder or not. Although the household income statistics cover the past 12 months, they are characteristics of individuals and the composition of households at the time of interview. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Kitchen Facilities. A unit has complete kitchen facilities when it has all three of the following facilities: (d) a sink with a faucet, (e) a stove or range, and (f) a refrigerator. All kitchen facilities must be located in the house, apartment, or mobile home, but they need not be in the same room. A housing unit having only a microwave or portable heating equipment such as a hot plate or camping stove should not be considered as having complete kitchen facilities. An icebox is not considered to be a refrigerator. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Loan Application. Mortgage loan applications reported under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act. HMDA applications are calculated in a similar fashion to the approach Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (the agency which collects, makes HMDA data available to the public) employs in their aggregate HMDA report. FFIEC incorporates all loan purchases (loans one bank buys from another are recorded again-beyond the initial loan record, in HMDA) and preapproval requests (those which do not become applications are excluded) to be removed. The approach is designed to only consider applications and is the method utilized used in these calculations for the data portal. (2012 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act).
Loan Origination. Indicates that the loan application was originated by the borrower institution. (2012 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act).
Manufactured/Mobile Home. A manufactured/mobile home is defined as a factory built housing unit that was originally constructed to be towed to the construction site on its own chassis. Manufactured/mobile homes in which one or more permanent rooms have been added are classified as a detached single family home and not a manufactured/mobile home. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Marital Status. The marital status question is asked to determine the status of the person at the time of the interview. People 15 and over were asked whether they were "now married," "widowed," "divorced," "separated," or "never married." People in common-law marriages were allowed to report the marital status they considered the most appropriate. Differences in the number of married males and females occur because there is no step in the weighting process to equalize the weighted estimates of husbands and wives. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Median Age. The age classification is based on the age of the person in complete years at the time of interview. Both age and date of birth are used in combination to calculate the most accurate age at the time of the interview. The median age is the age that divides the population into two equal-size groups. Half of the population is older than the median age and half is younger. Median age is based on a standard distribution of the population by single years of age and is shown to the nearest tenth of a year. (2008-2012 American Community Survey/2010 Census of Population and Housing).
Median Home Value. Home value is the respondent's estimate of how much the property (house and lot, mobile home and lot, or condominium unit) would sell for if it were for sale. If the house or mobile home was owned or being bought, but the land on which it sits was not, the respondent was asked to estimate the combined value of the house or mobile home and the land. For vacant units, value was the price asked for the property. Value was tabulated separately for all owner-occupied and vacant-for-sale housing units, as well as owner-occupied and vacant-for-sale mobile homes. The median divides the value distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value of the property and one-half above the median. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Mortgage Status. "Mortgage" refers to all forms of debt where the property is pledged as security for repayment of the debt, including deeds of trust; trust deeds; contracts to purchase; land contracts; junior mortgages; and home equity loans. A mortgage is considered a first mortgage if it has prior claim over any other mortgage or if it is the only mortgage on the property. All other mortgages (second, third, etc.) are considered junior mortgages. A home equity loan is generally a junior mortgage. If no first mortgage is reported, but a junior mortgage or home equity loan is reported, then the loan is considered a first mortgage. In most data products, the tabulations for "Selected Monthly Owner Costs" and "Selected Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income" usually are shown separately from units "with a mortgage" and for units "not mortgaged." The category "not mortgaged" is comprised of housing units owned free and clear of debt. Mortgage status provides information on the cost of home ownership. When the data is used in conjunction with mortgage payment data, the information determines shelter costs for living quarters. These data can be used in the development of housing programs aimed to evaluate the magnitude of and to plan facilities for condominiums, which are becoming an important source of supply of new housing in many areas. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Occupation. Occupation describes the kind of work a person does on the job. These questions were asked for all people 15 years old and over who had worked in the past 5 years. For employed people, the data refer to the person's job during the previous week. For those who worked two or more jobs, the data refer to the job where the person worked the greatest number of hours. For unemployed people and people who are not currently employed but report having a job within the last five years, the data refer to their last job. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Occupants per Room/Household Crowding. Occupants per room is obtained by dividing the number of people in each occupied housing unit by the number of rooms in the unit. Although the Census Bureau has no official definition of crowded units, many users consider units with more than one occupant per room to be crowded. For this report crowded units are those with more than one occupant per room. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Occupied Housing Unit. A housing unit is classified as occupied if it is the current place of residence of the person or group of people living in it at the time of interview, or if the occupants are only temporarily absent from the residence for two months or less, that is, away on vacation or a business trip. If all the people staying in the unit at the time of the interview are staying there for two months or less, the unit is considered to be temporarily occupied and classified as "vacant." The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated people who share living quarters. The living quarters occupied by staff personnel within any group quarters are separate housing units if they satisfy the housing unit criteria of separateness and direct access; otherwise, they are considered group quarters. (2008-2012 American Community Survey/2010 Census of Population and Housing).
Owner-Occupied Housing Unit. A housing unit is owner occupied if the owner or co-owner lives in the unit even if it is mortgaged or not fully paid for. The owner or co-owner must live in the unit. The unit is "Owned by you or someone in this household with a mortgage or loan" if it is being purchased with a mortgage or some other debt arrangement such as a deed of trust, trust deed, contract to purchase, land contract, or purchase agreement. The unit also is considered owned with a mortgage if it is built on leased land and there is a mortgage on the unit. Mobile homes occupied by owners with installment loan balances also are included in this category.
A housing unit is "Owned by you or someone in this household free and clear (without a mortgage or loan)" if there is no mortgage or other similar debt on the house, apartment, or mobile home including units built on leased land if the unit is owned outright without a mortgage. (2008-2012 American Community Survey/2010 Census of Population and Housing).
Place of Birth/Nativity. Information on place of birth and citizenship status was used to classify the population into two major categories: native and foreign born. Place of birth includes further specification about state of birth (within the United States) or foreign country, or Puerto Rico, Guam, etc. of birth (outside the U.S.). People born outside the United States were asked to report their place of birth according to current international boundaries. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Plumbing Facilities. Complete plumbing facilities include: (a) hot and cold running water, (b) a flush toilet, and (c) a bathtub or shower. All three facilities must be located inside the house, apartment, or mobile home, but not necessarily in the same room. Housing units are classified as lacking complete plumbing facilities when any of the three facilities is not present. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Poverty. Poverty statistics calculated in the ACS adhere to the standards specified by the Office of Management and Budget in Statistical Policy Directive 14. The Census Bureau uses a set of dollar value thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who is in poverty. Further, poverty thresholds for people living alone or with nonrelatives (unrelated individuals) vary by age (under 65 years or 65 years and older). The poverty thresholds for two-person families also vary by the age of the householder. If a family's total income is less than the dollar value of the appropriate threshold, then that family and every individual in it are considered to be in poverty. Similarly, if an unrelated individual's total income is less than the appropriate threshold, then that individual is considered to be in poverty. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Individuals for Whom Poverty Status is Determined. Poverty status was determined for all people except institutionalized people, people in military group quarters, people in college dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years old. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Race & Ethnicity. The Census Bureau collects race data in accordance with guidelines provided by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and these data are based on self-identification. The racial categories included in the American Community Survey questionnaire generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country, and not an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. In addition, it is recognized that the categories of the race item include racial and national origin or socio-cultural groups. People may choose to report more than one race to indicate their racial mixture, such as "American Indian" and "White." People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race.
The racial classifications used by the Census Bureau adhere to the October 30, 1997, Federal Register Notice entitled, "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity," issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). These standards govern the categories used to collect and present federal data on race and ethnicity. The OMB requires five minimum categories (White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander) for race. The race categories are described below with a sixth category, "Some other race," added with OMB approval. In addition to the five race groups, the OMB also states that respondents should be offered the option of selecting one or more races.
If an individual did not provide a race response, the race or races of the householder or other household members were assigned using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. For example, if race was missing for a son or daughter in the household, then either the race or races of the householder, another child, or the spouse of the householder were assigned. If race was not reported for anyone in the household, the race or races of a householder in a previously processed household were assigned. (2010 Census of Population and Housing).
American Indian or Alaska Native – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. It includes people who classified themselves as described below:
American Indian Tribe or Alaska Native. Respondents who identified themselves as "American Indian or Alaska Native" were asked to report their enrolled or principal tribe. Therefore, tribal data in tabulations reflect the written entries reported on the questionnaires. Some of the entries represent reservations or a confederation of tribes on a reservation. The information on tribe is based on self-identification and therefore does not reflect any designation of federally- or state-recognized tribe. The information for the American Community Survey was derived from the American Indian and Alaska Native Tribal Classification List for the 1990 census that was updated for Census 2000 and the ACS based on the annual Federal Register notice entitled "Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs," Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, issued by the Office of Management and Budget.
Two or More Races – People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple responses, or by some combination of check boxes and write-in responses. The race response categories shown on the questionnaire are collapsed into the five minimum races identified by the OMB, and the Census Bureau's "Some other race" category. For data product purposes, "Two or More Races" refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
Hispanic or Latino. Hispanics or Latinos who identify with the terms "Hispanic," "Latino," or "Spanish" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish categories listed on the questionnaire ("Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban") as well as those who indicate that they are "another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin." People who do not identify with one of the specific origins listed on the questionnaire but indicate that they are "another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin" are those whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, or the Dominican Republic. Up to two write-in responses to the "another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin" category are coded. Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race. (2010 Census of Population and Housing).
Renter-Occupied Housing Unit. All occupied housing units which are not owner occupied, whether they are rented or occupied without payment of rent, are classified as renter occupied. "No rent paid" units are separately identified in the rent tabulations. Such units are generally provided free by friends or relatives or in exchange for services such as resident manager, caretaker, minister, or tenant farmer. Housing units on military bases also are classified in the "No rent paid" category. (2008-2012 American Community Survey/2010 Census of Population and Housing).
Rooms. The statistics on rooms are in terms of the number of housing units with a specified number of rooms. The intent of this question is to count the number of whole rooms used for living purposes. For each unit, rooms include living rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, bedrooms, finished recreation rooms, enclosed porches suitable for year-around use, and lodger's rooms. Excluded are strip or Pullman kitchens, bathrooms, open porches, balconies, halls or foyers, half-rooms, utility rooms, unfinished attics or basements, or other unfinished space used for storage. A partially divided room is a separate room only if there is a partition from floor to ceiling but not if the partition consists solely of shelves or cabinets. Rooms provide the basis for estimating the amount of living and sleeping spaces within a housing unit. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Seasonal, Recreational, or Occasional Use Homes. These are vacant units used or intended for use only in certain seasons or for weekends or other occasional use throughout the year. Seasonal units include those used for summer or winter sports or recreation, such as beach cottages and hunting cabins. Seasonal units also may include quarters for such workers as herders and loggers. (2010 Census of Population and Housing).
Selected Monthly Owner Costs. Selected monthly owner costs are the sum of payments for mortgages, deeds of trust, contracts to purchase, or similar debts on the property (including payments for the first mortgage, second mortgage, home equity loan, and other junior mortgages); real estate taxes; fire, hazard, and flood insurance on property; utilities; and fuels. It also includes, where appropriate, the monthly condominium fee for condominiums and mobile home costs. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Telephone. A telephone must be in working order and service available in the house, apartment, or mobile home that allows the respondent to both make and receive calls. Households whose service has been discontinued for nonpayment or other reasons are not counted as having telephone service available. In 2008 the instruction "Include cell phones" was added. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Unemployed Persons. Included persons aged 16 years and older who had no employment during the reference week, were available for work, except for temporary illness, and had made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as unemployed (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Unemployment Rate. The unemployment rate represents the number unemployed persons as a percent of the labor force (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Units in Structure. A structure is a separate building that either has open spaces on all sides or is separated from other structures by dividing walls that extend from ground to roof. In determining the number of units in a structure, all housing units, both occupied and vacant, are counted. Stores and office space are excluded. The data are presented for the number of housing units in structures of specified type and size, not for the number of residential buildings. The units in structure provides information on the housing inventory by subdividing the inventory into one-family homes, apartments, and mobile homes. When the data is used in conjunction with tenure, year structure built, and income, units in structure serves as the basic identifier of housing used in many federal programs. The data also serve to aid in the planning of roads, hospitals, utility lines, schools, playgrounds, shopping centers, emergency preparedness plans, and energy consumption and supplies. Structure type is determined for occupied and vacant housing units. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Vacant Housing Unit. A housing unit is vacant if no one is living in it at the time of enumeration, unless its occupants are only temporarily absent. Units temporarily occupied at the time of enumeration entirely by people who have a usual residence elsewhere are also classified as vacant. (2010 Census of Population and Housing).
Value. Value is the respondent's estimate of how much the property (house and lot, mobile home and lot, or condominium unit) would sell for if it were for sale. The question was asked of housing units that were owned, being bought, vacant for sale, or sold not occupied at the time of the survey. If the house or mobile home was owned or being bought, but the land on which it sits was not, the respondent was asked to estimate the combined value of the house or mobile home and the land. For vacant units, value was the price asked for the property. Value was tabulated separately for all owner-occupied and vacant-for-sale housing units, as well as owner-occupied and vacant-for-sale mobile homes. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Year Householder Moved into Unit. These data refer to the year of the latest move by the householder. If the householder moved back into a housing unit he or she previously occupied, the year of the latest move was reported. If the householder moved from one apartment to another within the same building, the year the householder moved into the present apartment was reported. The intent is to establish the year the present occupancy by the householder began. The year that the householder moved in is not necessarily the same year other members of the household moved in, although in the great majority of cases an entire household moves at the same time. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Year Structure Built. Year structure built refers to when the building was first constructed, not when it was remodeled, added to, or converted. Housing units under construction are included as vacant housing if they meet the housing unit definition, that is, all exterior windows, doors, and final usable floors are in place. For mobile homes, houseboats, RVs, etc., the manufacturer's model year was assumed to be the year built. (2008-2012 American Community Survey).
Census tract boundaries generally follow visible and identifiable features. They may follow nonvisible legal boundaries, such as minor civil division (MCD) or incorporated place boundaries in some states and situations, to allow for census-tract-to-governmental-unit relationships where the governmental boundaries tend to remain unchanged between censuses. State and county boundaries always are census tract boundaries in the standard census geographic hierarchy.